DevOps Interview Questions

DevOps interview questions

Interviews are tough and the stress that you gain out of this is quite difficult to handle. If you want to take this stress out of your life, then follow our DevOps Interview questions that are created by the best individuals who are not only talented but also are skilled enough to determine the best questions and answers for you. This makes your life much easier and smoother wherein you will get to know what kind of questions are generally asked in the interviews and how to answer them efficiently so that you crack the interview.

About DevOps

DevOps is a complete set of software that is used to develop practices that are a combination of software development (Dev) and IT operations (Ops) to reduce the time it takes to process all the requests in the system. It helps in shortening the life cycle of the system development applications while delivering fixes, updates, as well as features often that abides by your business objectives. It was developed by a Belgian consultant named Patrick Debois, who is also a prominent project manager and an agile practitioner. If you are well versed with coding, building, testing, packaging, releasing, configuring, and monitoring, then you will definitely have the best career in this specific field.

Best DevOps Interview Questions of 2020

1. What is DevOps?

Characteristics DevOps
Basic premise A collaboration of development and operations teams. It is more of a cultural shift.
Related to Agile methodology
Priorities Resource management, communication, and teamwork
Benefits Speed, functionality, stability, and innovation

2. Mention what the key aspects or principle behind DevOps are?

 

The key aspects or principle behind DevOps is

  • Infrastructure as code
  • Continuous deployment
  • Automation
  • Monitoring
  • Security

3. What are the core operations of DevOps with application development and with infrastructure?

The core operations of DevOps are

Application development

  • Code building
  • Code coverage
  • Unit testing
  • Packaging
  • Deployment

Infrastructure

  • Provisioning
  • Configuration
  • Orchestration
  • Deployment

4. Explain how “Infrastructure code” is processed or executed in AWS?

In AWS,

  • The code for infrastructure will be in simple JSON format
  • This JSON code will be organized into files called templates
  • This templates can be deployed on AWS devops and then managed as stacks
  • Later the CloudFormation service will do the Creating, deleting, updating, etc. operation in the stack

5. Explain which scripting language is most important for a DevOps engineer?

A simpler scripting language will be better for a DevOps engineer. Python seems to be very popular.

6. Explain how DevOps is helpful to developers?

 DevOps can be helpful to developers to fix the bug and implement new features quickly. It also helps for clearer communication between the team members.

7. List out some popular tools for DevOps?

Some of the popular tools for DevOps are

  • Jenkins
  • Nagios
  • Monit
  • ELK (Elasticsearch, Logstash, Kibana)
  • Jenkins
  • Docker
  • Ansible
  • Git

8. Mention at what instance have you used the SSH?

I have used SSH to log into a remote machine and work on the command line. Beside this, I have also used it to tunnel into the system in order to facilitate secure encrypted communications between two untrusted hosts over an insecure network.

9. Explain how you would handle revision (version) control?

My approach to handling revision control would be to post the code on SourceForge or GitHub so everyone can view it. Also, I will post the checklist from the last revision to make sure that any unsolved issues are resolved.

10. What are the types of Http requests?

The types of Http requests are

  • GET
  • HEAD
  • PUT
  • POST
  • PATCH
  • DELETE
  • TRACE
  • CONNECT
  • OPTIONS

11. Explain what you would check If a Linux-build-server suddenly starts getting slow?

If a Linux-build-server suddenly starts getting slow, you will check for the following three things

  • Application Level troubleshooting
RAM related issues, Disk I/O read-write issues, Disk Space related Issues, etc.
  • System Level troubleshooting
Check for Application log file OR application server log file, system performance issues, Web Server Log – check HTTP, tomcat lo,  jboss, or WebLogic logs to see if the application server response/receive time is the issues for slowness, Memory Leak of any application
  • Dependent Services troubleshooting
Antivirus related issues, Firewall related issues, Network issues, SMTP server response time issues, etc.

12. What are the key components of DevOps?

The most important components of DevOps are:

  • Continuous Integration
  • Continuous Testing
  • Continuous Delivery
  • Continuous Monitoring

13. Name a few cloud platform which are used for DevOps Implementation   

Popular Cloud computing platform used for DevOps implementation are:

  1. Google Cloud
  2. Amazon Web Services
  3. Microsoft Azure

14. Give some benefits of using Version Control system

  • The version Control system allows team members to work freely on any file at any time.
  • All the past versions and variants are closely packed up inside the VCS.
  • A distributed VCS like helps you to store the complete history of the project so in case of a breakdown in the central server you can use your team member’s local Git repository.
  • Allows you to see what exact changes are made in the file’s content

15. Explain Git Bisect

A build is a method in which the source code is put together to check whether it works as a single unit. In the build creation process, the source code will undergo compilation, inspection, testing, and deployment.

16. What is Puppet?

Puppet is a useful project management tool. It helps you to automate administration tasks.

17. Explain two-factor authentication  

Two-factor authentication is a security method in which the user provides two ways of identification from separate categories.

18. Explain the term ‘Canary Release’.

A canary release is a pattern which reduces the risk of introducing a new version software into the production environment. It is done by making it available in a controlled manner to a subset of the user. Before making it available to the complete user set.

19. What types of testing is important to ensure that new service is ready for production?

You need to conduct continuous testing to ensure that the new service is ready for production.

20. How to launch a browser using WebDriver?

  • For Firefox, WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
  • For Chrome, WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
  • For Internet Explorer or IE, WebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver();

21. Are there any technical challenges with Selenium?

  • It supports only web-based applications.
  • It does not support the Bitmap comparison.
  • No vendor support for Selenium compared to commercial tools like HP UFT.
  • As there is no object repository concept, maintainability of objects becomes very complex.

22. When should I use Selenium Grid? 

Selenium can be used to execute same or different test scripts on multiple platforms and browsers concurrently in order to achieve distributed test execution. Selenium allows testing under different environments, saving the execution time remarkably.

23. Describe the difference between driver.close() and driver.quit().

The driver.close command closes the focused browser window. But, driver.quit calls the driver.dispose method which closes all browser windows and also ends the WebDriver session.

24. I have 40 jobs in the Jenkins dashboard and I need to build them all at once. Is it possible?

Yes, it is. With the help of a Jenkins plugin we can build projects one after the other. If one parent job is carried out, then automatically other jobs are also run. We also have the option to use Jenkins Pipeline jobs for the same. 

25. How will you secure Jenkins? 

The way to secure Jenkins is mentioned below.

  • Ensure that the global security is on
  • Check whether Jenkins is integrated with the company’s user directory with an appropriate plugin
  • Make sure that Project matrix is enabled to fine-tune access
  • Automate the process of setting rights or privileges in Jenkins with custom version-controlled script
  • Limit physical access to Jenkins data or folders
  • Periodically run security audits

26. Can you please tell me how to create a backup and copy files in Jenkins?

To create a backup, all we need to do is to periodically back up our JENKINS_HOME directory. This contains all of our build configurations of our job, our slave node configurations, and our build history. To create a backup of our Jenkins setup, just copy this directory. We can also copy a job directory to clone or replicate a job or rename the directory. 

27. What is Jenkins Pipeline? What is a CI/CD Pipeline?

Jenkins Pipeline can be defined as a suite of plugins supporting both implementation and integration of Jenkins continuous delivery pipeline.

Continuous integration or continuous delivery pipeline consists of build, deploy, test, and release. The pipeline feature is very time saving. In other words, a pipeline is a group of build jobs that are chained and integrated in a sequence.

28. What are Puppet Manifests? 

Every Puppet node or Puppet agent has got its configuration details in Puppet Master, written in the native Puppet language. These details are written in a language that Puppet can understand and are termed as Puppet Manifests. These manifests are composed of Puppet codes, and their filenames use the .pp extension.

For instance, we can write a manifest in Puppet Master that creates a file and installs Apache on all Puppet agents or slaves that are connected to the Puppet Master.

29. How can I configure systems with Puppet? 

In order to configure systems with Puppet in a client or server architecture, we have to use the Puppet agent and the Puppet master applications. In a stand-alone architecture, we have to use the Puppet apply application.

30. Can you tell me what a Puppet codedir is? 

It is the main directory for code and data in Puppet. It consists of environments (containing the manifests and modules), a global modules directory for all the environments, and your Hiera data.

Career scopes and salary scale

With the enhancements taking place in this industry, it has become easier for you to apply for jobs in this particular sector. If you want to have a better future in your life, then this is the best field for you that you can choose and enjoy the benefits offered by various companies. Choosing a career in this specific field won’t disappoint you when it comes to gaining knowledge and earning money. For a fresher, you can earn up to 70,000 to 80,000 dollars per annum working in this field, and with experience, you can earn up to 140,000 dollars per annum based on the skills and talent you have.

Conclusion

If you want to see yourself in a better place in the future, then choosing this field to grow is definitely not a bad option for you. You can crack the interviews easily with the help of our DevOps interview questions and answers, and earn yourself a designation in a reputed company.

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