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Java offers a well-off set of operators to influence variables. We can divide entire Java operators into the subsequent groups −

- Bitwise Operators
- Logical Operators
- Assignment Operators
- Relational Operators
- Misc Operators
- Arithmetic Operators

Arithmetic operators are adopted in mathematical expressions in the similar method that they are utilized in algebra. The subsequent table lists the arithmetic operators:

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

+ (Addition) | Adds values on either side of the operator. | A + B will give 30 |

- (Subtraction) | Subtracts the right-hand operand from the left-hand operand. | A - B will give -10 |

* (Multiplication) | Multiplies values on either side of the operator. | A * B will give 200 |

/ (Division) | Divides left-hand operand by right-hand operand. | B / A will give 2 |

% (Modulus) | Divides left-hand operand by right-hand operand and returns the remainder. | B % A will give 0 |

++ (Increment) | Increases the value of operand by 1. | B++ gives 21 |

-- (Decrement) | Decreases the value of operand by 1. | B-- gives 19 |

There are subsequent relational operators reinforced by the Java language

Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20, then:

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

== (equal to) | Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not, if yes then the condition becomes true. | (A == B) is not true. |

!= (not equal to) | Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not, if values are not equal then the condition becomes true. | (A != B) is true. |

> (greater than) | Checks if the value of the left operand is greater than the value of the right operand, if yes then the condition becomes true. | (A > B) is not true. |

< (less than) | Checks if the value of the left operand is less than the value of the right operand, if yes then the condition becomes true. | (A < B) is true. |

>= (greater than or equal to) | Checks if the value of the left operand is greater than or equal to the value of the right operand, if yes then the condition becomes true. | (A >= B) is not true. |

<= (less than or equal to) | Checks if the value of the left operand is less than or equal to the value of the right operand, if yes then the condition becomes true. | (A <= B) is true. |

Java characterizes numerous bitwise operators, which can be practical to the integer types, long, int, short, char, and byte.

Bitwise operator works on bits and performs a bit-by-bit operation. Assume if a = 60 and b = 13; now in the binary format they will be as follows −

a = 0011 1100

b = 0000 1101

-----------------

a&b = 0000 1100

a'b = 0011 1101

a^b = 0011 0001

~a = 1100 0011

The following table lists the bitwise operators −

Assume integer variable A holds 60 and variable B holds 13 then −

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

& (bitwise and) | Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands. | (A & B) will give 12 which is 0000 1100 |

' (bitwise or) | Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in either operand. | (A ' B) will give 61 which is 0011 1101 |

^ (bitwise XOR) | Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both. | (A ^ B) will give 49 which is 0011 0001 |

~ (bitwise compliment) | Binary Ones Complement Operator is unary and has the effect of 'flipping' bits. | (~A ) will give -61 which is 1100 0011 in 2's complement form due to a signed binary number. |

<< (left shift) | Binary Left Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand. | A << 2 will give 240 which is 1111 0000 |

>> (right shift) | Binary Right Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand. | A >> 2 will give 15 which is 1111 |

>>> (zero fill right shift) | Shift right, zero-fill operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand and shifted values are filled up with zeros. | A >>>2 will give 15 which is 0000 1111 |

The following table lists the logical operators −

Assume Boolean variables A holds and variable B holds false, then −

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

&& (logical and) | Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are non-zero, then the condition becomes true. | (A && B) is false |

'' (logical or) | Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands are non-zero, then the condition becomes true. | (A '' B) is true |

! (logical not) | Called Logical NOT Operator. Use to reverses the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true then the Logical NOT operator will make false. | !(A && B) is true |

Following are the assignment operators supported by the Java language:

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

= | Simple assignment operator. Assigns values from right side operands to left side operands. | C = A + B will assign value of A + B into C |

+= | Add AND assignment operator. It adds the right operand to the left operand and assigns the result to the left operand. | C += A is equivalent to C = C + A |

-= | Subtract AND assignment operator. It subtracts the right operand from the left operand and assigns the result to the left operand. | C -= A is equivalent to C = C – A |

*= | Multiply AND assignment operator. It multiplies the right operand with the left operand and assigns the result to the left operand. | C *= A is equivalent to C = C * A |

/= | Divide AND assignment operator. It divides the left operand with the right operand and assigns the result to the left operand. | C /= A is equivalent to C = C / A |

%= | Modulus AND assignment operator. It takes modulus using two operands and assigns the result to the left operand. | C %= A is equivalent to C = C % A |

<<= | Left shift AND assignment operator. | C <<= 2 is same as C = C << 2 |

>>= | Right shift AND assignment operator. | C >>= 2 is same as C = C >> 2 |

&= | Bitwise AND assignment operator. | C &= 2 is same as C = C & 2 |

^= | bitwise exclusive OR and assignment operator. | C ^= 2 is same as C = C ^ 2 |

'= | bitwise inclusive OR and assignment operator. | C '= 2 is same as C = C ' 2 |

There are few other operators supported by Java Language.

The conditional operator is too identified as the ternary operator. This operator is consisted of three operands and is utilized to assess Boolean expressions. The objective of the operator is to choose, which cost should be allocated to the variable. The operator is written as:

variable x = (expression) ? value if true : value if false

Following is an example −

public class Test { public static void main(String args[]) { int a, b; a = 10; b = (a == 1) ? 20: 30; System.out.println( "Value of b is : " + b ); b = (a == 10) ? 20: 30; System.out.println( "Value of b is : " + b ); } }

This will produce the following result −

Value of b is : 30 Value of b is : 20

This operator is utilized only for entity situation variables. The operator verifies whether the object is of an exacting type (class type or interface type). Instanceof operator is written as:

( Object reference variable ) instanceof (class/interface type)

If the object referred by the variable on the left side of the operator passes the IS-A check for the class/interface type on the right side, then the result will be true. Following is an example:

( Object reference variable ) instanceof (class/interface type)

If the object referred by the variable on the left side of the operator passes the IS-A check for the class/interface type on the right side, then the result will be true. Following is an example −

public class Test { public static void main(String args[]) { String name = "James"; // following will return true since name is type of String boolean result = name instanceof String; System.out.println( result ); } }

This will produce the following result −

`true`

This operator will still return true if the object being compared is the assignment compatible with the type on the right. Following is one more example −

class Vehicle {} public class Car extends Vehicle { public static void main(String args[]) { Vehicle a = new Car(); boolean result = a instanceof Car; System.out.println( result ); } }

This will produce the following result −

`true`

Operator precedence decides the alliance of terms in a look. This influences how a face is appraised. Convinced operators encompass higher preference than others; for case, the increased operator has senior precedence than the adding operator:

For example, x = 7 + 3 * 2; here x is assigned 13, not 20 because operator * has higher precedence than +, so it first gets multiplied with 3 * 2 and then adds into 7.

Here, operators with the highest precedence appear at the top of the table, those with the lowest appear at the bottom. Within an expression, higher precedence operators will be evaluated first.

Category | Operator | Associativity |
---|---|---|

Postfix | expression++ expression-- | Left to right |

Unary | ++expression –-expression +expression –expression ~ ! | Right to left |

Multiplicative | * / % | Left to right |

Additive | + - | Left to right |

Shift | << >> >>> | Left to right |

Relational | < > <= >= instanceof | Left to right |

Equality | == != | Left to right |

Bitwise AND | & | Left to right |

Bitwise XOR | ^ | Left to right |

Bitwise OR | ' | Left to right |

Logical AND | && | Left to right |

Logical OR | '' | Left to right |

Conditional | ?: | Right to left |

Assignment | = += -= *= /= %= ^= '= <<= >>= >>>= | Right to left |

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