Python tutorial provided here is an encyclopedia to learn Python for Beginners to Experts level Python programming language in Easy Steps. Best way to learn Python with this step by step Python guide and implement whatever you learn here. Just open your desktop or laptop, take down the note, install Python and start Python coding.
Python was developed and introduced by Mr. Guido van Rossum in between 1985 and 1990. It is an open-source and a general-purpose, reciprocal, object-oriented, and high-level programming language. Python is assumed quite similar to Perl. Python source code is made available following the GNU General Public License (GPL). Let us now get started with learning Python and its basics. Everything right from the basics of python has been discussed here in order to help you learn Python as per your ambition.
What is Python?
The Python programming language refers to an object-oriented language, meaning that it can model the real-world entities. As it carries out type-checking during runtime, it is known to be dynamically-typed. This is done in order to ensure that the kind of construct matches with the one it was expected to be. The distinguishing feature of Python is it being an interpreted language. The Python Integrated Development Environment (IDE) executes instructions only one line at a particular instant of time. This further allows you to use it as a calculator.
Why is it called Python?
Getting into etymology, Python was named so after the comedy group Monty Python by Guido van Rossum. That is the reason why the metasyntactic variables (those frequently being used to explain code syntax) are called spam and eggs and not that foo and bar. A huge number of Python implementations today run the version 2.x, however, the future belongs to Python 3.x. It is also known as Python 3000 or Py3K. Written in C, CPython stands out to be one of the most common implementations of Python.
Thus, moving ahead with this Python tutorial, let us move to why to learn Python and who should learn Python.
Why to Learn Python?
Python is a high-ranking programming language. The main attributes that it equips are interpretation, synergistic and, of course, the object-oriented scripting language.
Python is known for distributing well-structured readable solutions. Whether, Python 2 or Python 3, both the versions apply English keywords and syntactical structures along with punctuations. The other programming languages have been acceptable to use only punctuations.
Python is a NECESSITY for aspirants and employed professionals turning out to be a great Software Engineer particularly when they are running in Web Development Domain. I would voluntary the list down to a few of the key benefits of learning Python:
- Python is Interpreted − Python is operating date runtime by the intermediate. You do not demand to roll up your program before executing it. This is related to PERL and PHP.
- Python is Interactive − You can genuinely support at a Python prompt and move with the interpreter directly to write your programs.
- Python is Object-Oriented − Python renders Object-Oriented style or proficiency of programming that encloses code within objects.
- Python is a Beginner's Language − Python is a big language for the beginner-level coders and renders the development of a broad range of applications from uncomplicated text proceeding to WWW browsers to games.
Who Should Learn Pyhton Programming
This Python tutorial is created for beginners and professional software programmers; that demand to pick up Python programming language from the start.
Types of Python Jobs that you land after completing with Python Certification
Compared to another programming language, Python scope is rigorous in data science and data analysis. B2B patrons always prefer to search the hidden patterns extracted from data pools.
Python is known to be a desired programming language in machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI). Data scientists have already accepted the wide scope in Python. In addition, Python is utilized in most of the software development phases such as web development, desktop applications, and network programming.
Prerequisites to Learn Python Programming
It is not necessary that you know programming knowledge before learning Python language. If you want to learn programming, then you can easily learn Python. If You have basic knowledge of concepts like Variables, Loops etc, is considered a plus. A primary apprehension of any of the programming languages is considered a plus.
Career opportunities after learning Python
Python is an easy and simple programming language to learn. Python slashes development time to half with its uncomplicated to read syntax and trouble-free compilation feature.
In addition, it has an abundance of libraries that hold up data analysis, management and visualization. Consequently, it has developed as the most choose language by the professionals. Nowadays, there are various Python career opportunities accessible for a Python programmer.
Learning towards being inquisitive and hands-on is selected as Python. Availing our hands-on fewer programming languages can make you swindle around any less important system loaded with errors and issues.
In a self-governing 3rd party review, it has been established that the Python programming language is now the most accepted language for Data Scientists worldwide. This assert is substantiated by IEEE, which paths programming languages by fame. Accordingly, Python tops the list of the nearly all well-liked programming languages in 2020.
Not only this, Python is ruling its application in varied domains, as exemplified below. Fortunately, this is varying now, with developers realizing the requirement to put in Python to their resumes, both for earlier programming and profitable global careers.
Python Job Profiles
With Python mentioned in your curriculum vitae will land you to one of the following positions in a reputed IT company or any industry:
- Analyzing users’ requirements, write, and test code along with writing operational documents for developing various existing programs
- Developing high-quality IT software architecture and automating scheduled tasks through scripting and initializing various other tools
- Reviewing and debugging code for performing validation and verification testing
- Implementing version control while design patterns for programs and data
- Deploying updates and fixes along with analyzing to resolve technical issues
- Designing the procedural maintenance and troubleshooting scripts
- Developing scripts for implementing automate visualization at Level 2 technical support for deliveries
- Identifying the data sources while automating the collection
- Analyzing data & preprocessing to discover trends
- Designing ML algorithms and predicting models
- Data visualization and performance
- Proposing solutions to meet forthcoming business challenges
- Building analytical tools to discover patterns and to generate insight behavior
Organization, which are considered successful and brand enterprises in IT industry and other sectors such as Instagram, Netflix, Reddit, Lyft, Google, Spotify, The New York Times, Bloomberg, and various local banks are using the Python.
To have no confusion, Python is the most sought after and best programming languages to learn and skill yourselves to create a fruitful career.
Python Developer Salary
By the end of 2020, Python is expected to deliver quite impressive numbers concerning jobs. A recent survey by top job sites in India reported that at least 0.5 million Python jobs are going to be created in countries like the USA, UK, Australia, Singapore, South East Asia, Middle East, and South Africa.
Interestingly, the salary numbers for the software engineers skilled in Python language programming are going to make big earnings. Impressively, 61 large organizations across the world have accepted Python as their main programming language. To name some of the big players are Quora, Facebook, YouTube, SlideShare, Dropbox, Pinterest, Reddit, Netflix, Google, Samsung, and so on.
So, when talking about Python’s salary, it is estimated to be USD 163,000 annually. Though, it varies from country to country and industry to industry, yet, the salary of a Python programmer is very high compared to other professionals in different programming languages. It offer a wide scope for job opportunities beyond land and continents.
- conceived in the late 1980s the Python programming language was named after the BBC TV show Monty Python’s Flying Circus. It was in December 1989 when Guido van Rossum began implementing Python at CWI in the Netherlands. Python Programming language was a successor to the ABC programming language which owned the ability of exception handling as well as interfacing with the Amoeba operating system.
- Python 2.0 was released on October 16 of 2000, and it consisted of several major new features that include cycle-detecting garbage collectors for the purpose of support for Unicode and memory management.
- The next version of Python 3.0 got released in the year 2008 on December 3.
Now you are informed about how Python came into the picture. Thus, moving ahead with this Python tutorial, let us move to some basic concepts of python and its architecture.
Python 2 vs. Python 3
Python is accessible in two different versions; Python 2 and Python 3. Comparing Python with other programming languages results is delivering valuable and secure solutions.
Like most of the programming languages, it is comfortable for the project managers to switch from older to the newly released newer version. Other programming released versions reinforce the features and syntax of the existing version. On the contrary, Python versions two and three are quite alike from each other.
|Python 2 uses print as a statement
Python 3 uses print as a function
|Command print “Hello” to print some string on the console
||Command print “Hello” used to print function on the console.
|Applies the function raw_input() to recognize the user's input. In the respective version, the command returns the string on behalf of the value, provided by the user. In case the user requires to convert it into the integer, they require to type the int() function in Python.
||Applies input() function that gets automatically recognized as the interpreted typed entered by the user. Yet, users can type this value to some type of primitive functions such as (int(), str(), etc.
|The understood string type is ASCII.
||The contained string type is Unicode.
Moreover, Python 3 version does not comprise of the xrange() function compared to Python 2. In fact, the xrange() is the variant of range() function accepting an xrange object that employs like to Java iterator. The range() returns a list for instances, which the function range(0,3) and contains 0, 1, 2.
Furthermore, Python 3 has an Exception managing solutions. The exception handling describes a keyword as which is necessary executed. There is an Exception handling tutorial provided in other Python chapters.
Let us now see the various Python architecture as well as its usual flow-
- Parser: In order to generate an abstract syntax tree, Parser makes use of the Source code.
- Compiler: A compiler is responsible for turning the abstract syntax tree to Python Bytecode.
- Interpreter: Interpreter applying REPL i.e. Read-Evaluate-Print-Loop pattern executes the code line by line. On Windows, you can type the following whenever you wish to run the Python interpreter in the shell,
Further, we shall learn about some useful Python Constructs in this Python tutorial, giving you a better understanding of the structure of Python code.
Python Programming Characteristics
- It reinforces structural designs and functional programming techniques besides OOP.
- Python can be applied as a scripting language and also for compiling to byte-code for functioning for developing wide and potential applications.
- The programming language is supporting upper-level dynamic data types and distributes dynamic type checking methodologies.
- Python is able to execute automatic garbage collection.
- The programming language is well incorporated with C, C++, COM, ActiveX, and CORBA along with Java.
- Python is enriched with data types.
- It provides easy to understand and reading syntax compared to other programming languages.
- Python grants full access to the operating system API's.
- Users prefer it due to platform-independent scripted language solutions. All the versions of Python equip users with more run-time flexibilities.
- It incorporates the basic text manipulation solutions of Awk and Perl.
- Every module in all the Python versions incorporate one or more classes and free functions.
- All the libraries in Python’s different versions have the cross-platform compatible features associating Linux, Macintosh, and Windows.
- Python can be compiled to byte-code for the projects that require developing large applications. Python reinforce functional and structured programming along with OOP
- It renders interactive mode authorizing Testing and debugging of snippets of code in much easily compared to other programming languages.
- All the Python versions are known for no compilation steps, editing, debugging, yet testing is fast.
- Functions: Functions in Python refer to a collection of statements that have been grouped under a name. These can be used by individuals whenever one wishes to execute all the statements at a time. Functions can be called anywhere and as many times as required within a program. A function might return a value.
- Classes: As mentioned earlier, Python refers to an object-oriented language which supports both classes as well as objects. Class is simply an abstract data type or in other words for an object of a specific type, a class is the blueprint.
- Modules: The Python module refers to the collection of the associated classes as well as functions. It comprises modules for mathematical calculations, web programming, string manipulations and much more.
- Packages: Python package refers to the collection of associated modules. Once they can either import a package or create their own.
- List: List is possibly a collection of values. It is declared in CSV i.e. Comma-separated Values format and delimit making use of the square brackets. One can also slice the lists; slicing is a way to retrieve a few values from it. We shall learn more about the same in the lessons further.
- Tuple: A tuple is similar to a list, the only difference being that it is immutable (i.e. you cannot change the values of Tuple).
- Dictionary: A dictionary refers to a collection of some of the key-value pairs. One can declare it by making use of the curly braces, and commas in order to segregate the key-value pairs. Also, for separating values from the keys making use of a colon (:).
- Comments and Docstrings: One should make use of an octothorpe (#) in comments. However, multiline comments are not supported by Python. Also, the docstrings refer to the documentation strings that help in explaining the code.
In addition to all these, Python has several other constructs. These are inclusive of functions, control structures, exceptions, etc. We shall discuss these later in python advance tutorial. Let us now move ahead with learning about the distinguished features of Python. Based on these features, one would be able to choose a certain programming language for their next project.
Applications of Python
As aforementioned earlier, Python is one of the fewest broad utilized language over the web and online world. The list of some points here:
- Easy-to-learn − Python has hardly a keywords, uncomplicated structure, and an intelligibly defined syntax. This authorizes the student to select the language rapidly.
- Easy-to-read − Python code is much clearly delineated and visible to the eyes.
- Easy-to-maintain − Python's source code is reasonably easy-to-maintain.
- A broad standard library − Python's mammoth library is precise portable and cross-platform congenial on UNIX, Windows, and Macintosh.
- Interactive Mode − Python has rendered for an interactive manner that enables interactive testing and debugging of snipping codes.
- Portable − Python can process on a broad range of hardware platforms and has the aforementioned interface on entire platforms.
- Extendable − You can equip low-level components to the Python interpreter. These factors change programmers to add to or tailor-made their tools to be much efficient.
- Databases − Python provides interfaces to all leading commercial databases.
- GUI Programming − Python supports GUI applications that could be evolved and opened to a variety of system calls, libraries and windows systems, such as Windows MFC, Macintosh, and the X Window system of Unix.
- Scalable − Python equips a better design and support for sizable programs than just shell scripting.
- Django: Python Django refers to a free as well as an open-source framework is the most common Python framework written in Python. Django allows individuals to create some database-driven websites. This further follows the DRY Principle i.e. Don’t Repeat Yourself. Moreover, it is a design philosophy that keeps the code both simple and eloquent. Popular websites such as Mozilla, Instagram, and Disqus utilize it.
- Flask: Similar to Django, Flask refers to a web framework which is again written in Python. Flask, in general, refers to a micro framework as it does not require certain libraries as well as tools. It also does not comprise form validation or even the database abstraction layer. However, an individual can utilize the extensions in order to add extra features.
- Pyramid: Pyramid is yet another framework of Python which neither belongs to the category of micro-framework which doesn’t force decisions nor it is a mega-framework that possibly makes decisions for you. It gives you optimal freedom for your project.
- Tornado: Tornado is another open-source web framework and this is also written in Python language and is widely known for its excellent and unmatched performance as well as scalability.
- Bottle: Similar to the Flask, Bottle for Python is its micro-framework and is primarily used for the purpose of web development. The bottle is widely popular for its simplicity, lightweight and speed. A single file has the ability to run both Python 2.5+ and 3.x.
- web2py: Web2py is an open-source web framework of Python and is also written in Python. It follows and MVC structure and focuses on faster development. MVC here stands for Model View Controller.
- NumPy: NumPy again refers to the open-source framework for Python. It is primarily used for the purpose of scientific computing and supports a huge multidimensional array as well as matrices and also the functions required to operate on those.
- SciPy: SciPy refers to a Python library that can be used for the purpose of scientific computing. It comprises modules for interpolation, linear algebra, image processing, fast Fourier transform(FFT), and much more. It makes use of the multidimensional arrays from the NumPy module.
- Pylons: Pylons is a deprecated framework of Python, which means that it is not recommended anymore. It is also an open-source web framework as well. It makes use of extensive third-party tools.
Types of Python Language
Let us now take a look at some of the major implementations of Python
- CPython: CPython is an implementation of Python which is most widely accepted. It is an interpreter and is written in the language C.
- Jython: Jython is written in Java and is again a Python implementation. A Jython program is capable of importing any Java class. It also compiles to Java bytecode.
- IronPython: Implemented in C# IronPython functions as an extensibility layer to the various application frameworks written in a .NET language.
- Brython: Brython is a flavor of Python that stands for Browser Python. In general, it refers to an implementation of Python which runs in the browser.
- RubyPython: With an objective to marshal data amongst Python and Ruby virtual machines, it bridges the gap between both Python and Ruby interpreters.
- PyPy: It is quite interesting to discover the implementation of PyPy in Python. This further makes it easier and faster to experiment with. Although, the standard implementation of the same is CPython.
- MicroPython: Meant to run on a microcontroller, MicroPython is an implementation of Python which makes use of a MicroPython board that further runs MicroPython over bare metal.
You should have an elementary realizing of Computer Programming terminologies. A primary apprehension of any of the programming languages is considered a plus.
Python Exceptions Handling
Python Further Extensions