Python operators are equipped with solutions to create and manipulate the value of operands according to the requirements. For example, we assume an expression 7 + 4 = 11. So, the digits 7 and 4 happens to be operands; whereas, + (plus sign) is called operator.
Python language supports the following types of operators.
Let us have a look at all operators one by one.
Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20, then?
[ Show Example ]
Operator | Description | Example |
+ Addition | Adds values on either side of the operator. | a + b = 30 |
- Subtraction | Subtracts the right-hand operand from the left-hand operand. | a - b = -10 |
* Multiplication | Multiplies values on either side of the operator | a * b = 200 |
/ Division | Divides left-hand operand by right-hand operand | b / a = 2 |
% Modulus | Divides left-hand operand by right-hand operand and return the remainder | b % a = 0 |
** Exponent | Performs exponential (power) calculation on operators | a**b =10 to the power 20 |
// | Floor Division - The division of operands where the result is the quotient in which the digits after the decimal point are removed. But if one of the operands is negative, the result is floored, i.e., rounded away from zero (towards negative infinity)? | 9//2 = 4 and 9.0//2.0 = 4.0, -11//3 = -4, -11.0//3 = -4.0 |
The aforementioned operators evaluate the values on each of the sides and settle on the relation among them. They are also called Relational operators.
Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20, then?
[ Show Example ]
Operator | Description | Example |
== | If the values of two operands are equal, then the condition becomes true. | (a == b) is not true. |
!= | If the values of two operands are not equal, then the condition becomes true. | (a != b) is true. |
<> | If the values of two operands are not equal, then the condition becomes true. | (a <> b) is true. This is similar to != operator. |
> | If the value of the left operand is greater than the value of the right operand, then the condition becomes true. | (a > b) is not true. |
< | If the value of the left operand is less than the value of the right operand, then the condition becomes true. | (a < b) is true. |
>= | If the value of the left operand is greater than or equal to the value of the right operand, then the condition becomes true. | (a >= b) is not true. |
<= | If the value of the left operand is less than or equal to the value of the right operand, then the condition becomes true. | (a <= b) is true. |
Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20, then?
[ Show Example ]
Operator | Description | Example |
== | If the values of two operands are equal, then the condition becomes true. | (a == b) is not true. |
!= | If the values of two operands are not equal, then the condition becomes true. | (a != b) is true. |
<> | If the values of two operands are not equal, then the condition becomes true. | (a <> b) is true. This is similar to != operator. |
> | If the value of the left operand is greater than the value of the right operand, then the condition becomes true. | (a > b) is not true. |
< | If the value of the left operand is less than the value of the right operand, then the condition becomes true. | (a < b) is true. |
>= | If the value of the left operand is greater than or equal to the value of the right operand, then the condition becomes true. | (a >= b) is not true. |
<= | If the value of the left operand is less than or equal to the value of the right operand, then the condition becomes true. | (a <= b) is true. |
Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20, then -
[ Show Example ]
Operator | Description | Example |
= | Assigns values from right side operands to left side operand | c = a + b assigns value of a + b into c |
+= Add AND | It adds the right operand to the left operand and assigns the result to the left operand | c += a is equivalent to c = c + a |
-= Subtract AND | It subtracts the right operand from the left operand and assigns the result to the left operand | c -= a is equivalent to c = c - a |
*= Multiply AND | It multiplies the right operand with the left operand and assigns the result to the left operand | c *= a is equivalent to c = c * a |
/= Divide AND | It divides the left operand with the right operand and assigns the result to the left operand | c /= a is equivalent to c = c / a |
%= Modulus AND | It takes modulus using two operands and assigns the result to the left operand | c %= a is equivalent to c = c % a |
**= Exponent AND | Performs exponential (power) calculation on operators and assign value to the left operand | c **= a is equivalent to c = c ** a |
//= Floor Division | It performs floor division on operators and assigns value to the left operand | c //= a is equivalent to c = c // a |
Bitwise operator works on bits and performs a bit-by-bit operation. Assume if a = 60; and b = 13; Now in the binary format their values will be 0011 1100 and 0000 1101 respectively. The following table lists out the bitwise operators supported by Python language with an example each in those, we use the above two variables (a and b) as operands?
a = 0011 1100
b = 0000 1101
-----------------
a&b = 0000 1100
a'b = 0011 1101
a^b = 0011 0001
~a = 1100 0011
There are the following Bitwise operators supported by the Python language
[ Show Example ]
Operator | Description | Example |
& Binary AND | Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands | (a & b) (means 0000 1100) |
' Binary OR | It copies a bit if it exists in either operand. | (a ' b) = 61 (means 0011 1101) |
^ Binary XOR | It copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both. | (a ^ b) = 49 (means 0011 0001) |
~ Binary One's Complement | It is unary and has the effect of 'flipping' bits. | (~a ) = -61 (means 1100 0011 in 2's complement form due to a signed binary number. |
<< Binary Left Shift | The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand. | a << 2 = 240 (means 1111 0000) |
>> Binary Right Shift | The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand. | a >> 2 = 15 (means 0000 1111) |
These are pursuing logical operators reinforced by Python language. Suppose variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20 then
[ Show Example ]
Operator | Description | Example |
and Logical AND | If both the operands are true then the condition becomes true. | (a and b) is true. |
or Logical OR | If any of the two operands are non-zero then the condition becomes true. | (a or b) is true. |
not Logical NOT | Used to reverse the logical state of its operand. | Not(a and b) is false. |
Python's membership operators test for membership in a sequence, such as strings, lists, or tuples. There are two membership operators as explained below?
[ Show Example ]
Operator | Description | Example |
in | Evaluates to true if it finds a variable in the specified sequence and false otherwise. | x in y herein results in a 1 if x is a member of sequence y. |
not in | Evaluates to true if it does not finds a variable in the specified sequence and false otherwise. | x not in y, here not in results in a 1 if x is not a member of sequence y. |
Identity operators compare the memory locations of two objects. There are two Identity operators explained below?
[ Show Example ]
Operator | Description | Example |
is | Evaluates to true if the variables on either side of the operator point to the same object and false otherwise. | x is y, here it results in 1 if id(x) equals id(y). |
is not | Evaluates to false if the variables on either side of the operator point to the same object and true otherwise. | x is not y, here is not results in 1 if id(x) is not equal to id(y). |
The following table lists all operators from highest precedence to lowest.
[ Show Example ]
Sr.No. | Operator & Description |
1 | ** Exponentiation (raise to the power) |
2 | ~ + - Complement, unary plus, and minus (method names for the last two are +@ and -@) |
3 | * / % // Multiply, divide, modulo, and floor division |
4 | + - Addition and subtraction |
5 | >> << Right and left bitwise shift |
6 | & Bitwise 'AND' |
7 | ^ ' Bitwise exclusive `OR' and regular `OR' |
8 | <= < > >= Comparison operators |
9 | <> == != Equality operators |
10 | = %= /= //= -= += *= **= Assignment operators |
11 | is is not Identity operators |
12 | in not in Membership operators |
13 | not or and Logical operators |
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