Python Numbers


Contents

In Python programming language, there are provisions that when the number data types usually store all the numeric values. These are considered as the immutable data types. Therefore, it executes that the modification in value of a number data type will be resulting in a newly allocated object.

While you assign a value, a number objects are created always. For example :

var1 = 1
var2 = 10

Users could additionally delete the reference to a number object while utilizing the del statement. The syntax of the del statement is :

del var1[,var2[,var3[....,varN]]]]

Users could delete an individual, a single object, and multiple objects with utilizing the del statement. For example :

del var
del var_a, var_b

Python reinforces actual 4 diverse numerical types :

  • int (signed integers) – Such variable are usually known as integers or ints. These include two kinds of numbers; positive and negative as the entire numbers with no decimal point.
  • long (long integers ) – Such variable are known as the longs. These integers are available in unlimited size supported by an uppercase or lowercase L written like integers.
  • float (floating point real values) – When the values are written with a decimal point separating the integer and fractional parts are called as floats. These floats represent the real numbers on the table. In Python programming language, these floats may be accessible in scientific notation; where E or e indicating the power of 10.
  • complex (complex numbers) – First-of-all, Python programming language has always discouraged complex numbers. However, supposing the form a + bJ. This would include a and b as floats where J (j) depicts the square root of -1. (-1) could be considered as an imaginary number. Thus, real part of the number is a, and the imaginary part is b.

Examples

Here are some examples of numbers

Int

Long

float

complex

10

51924361L

0.0

3.14j

100

-0x19323L

15.20

45.j

-786

0122L

-21.9

9.322e-36j

080

0xDEFABCECBDAECBFBAEL

32.3+e18

.876j

-0490

535633629843L

-90.

-.6545+0J

-0x260

-052318172735L

-32.54e100

3e+26J

0x69

-4721885298529L

70.2-E12

4.53e-7j

Python authorizes users to utilize a lowercase L with long. However, Python recommends that users must opt for an uppercase L to keep away from confusion with the number 1. Python displays long integers with an uppercase L. A complex number contains an sorted pair of actual floating point numbers indicated by a + bj, where a is the real part and b is the imaginary part of the complex number.

Number Type Conversion

Python changes numbers inside in a phrase containing mixed types to a ordinary type for assessment. However, sometimes, you require coercing a number openly from one type to another to satisfy the supplies of an operator or functioning parameter.

  • Type int(x) to convert x to a plain integer
  • Type long(x) to convert x to a long integer
  • Type float(x) to convert x to a floating-point number
  • Type complex(x) to convert x to a complex number with real part x and imaginary part zero
  • Type complex(x, y) to convert x and y to a complex number with real part x and imaginary part y. x and y are numeric expressions

Mathematical Functions

Python includes following functions that perform mathematical calculations.

Sr.No.

Function & Returns ( description )

1

abs(x)

The absolute value of x: the (positive) distance between x and zero.

2

ceil(x)

The ceiling of x: the smallest integer not less than x

3

cmp(x, y)

-1 if x < y, 0 if x == y, or 1 if x > y

4

exp(x)

The exponential of x: ex

5

fabs(x)

The absolute value of x.

6

floor(x)

The floor of x: the largest integer not greater than x

7

log(x)

The natural logarithm of x, for x> 0

8

log10(x)

The base-10 logarithm of x for x> 0.

9

max(x1, x2,...)

The largest of its arguments: the value closest to positive infinity

10

min(x1, x2,...)

The smallest of its arguments: the value closest to negative infinity

11

modf(x)

The fractional and integer parts of x in a two-item tuple. Both parts have the same sign as x. The integer part is returned as a float.

12

pow(x, y)

The value of x**y.

13

round(x [,n])

x rounded to n digits from the decimal point. Python rounds away from zero as a tie-breaker: round(0.5) is 1.0 and round(-0.5) is -1.0.

14

sqrt(x)

The square root of x for x > 0

Random Number Functions

Random numbers are forecast for games, privacy applications, simulations, testing, and security.

Python contains following functions:

Sr.No.

Function & Description

1

choice(seq)

A random item from a list, tuple, or string.

2

randrange ([start,] stop [,step])

A randomly selected element from range(start, stop, step)

3

random()

A random float r, such that 0 is less than or equal to r and r is less than 1

4

seed([x])

Sets the integer starting value used in generating random numbers. Call this function before calling any other random module function. Returns None.

5

shuffle(lst)

Randomizes the items of a list in place. Returns None.

6

uniform(x, y)

A random float r, such that x is less than or equal to r and r is less than y

Trigonometric Functions

Python includes following functions that perform trigonometric calculations.

Sr.No.

Function & Description

1

acos(x)

Return the arc cosine of x, in radians.

2

asin(x)

Return the arc sine of x, in radians.

3

atan(x)

Return the arc tangent of x, in radians.

4

atan2(y, x)

Return atan(y / x), in radians.

5

cos(x)

Return the cosine of x radians.

6

hypot(x, y)

Return the Euclidean norm, sqrt(x*x + y*y).

7

sin(x)

Return the sine of x radians.

8

tan(x)

Return the tangent of x radians.

9

degrees(x)

Converts angle x from radians to degrees.

10

radians(x)

Converts angle x from degrees to radians.

Mathematical Constants

The module also defines two mathematical constants :

Sr.No.

Constants & Description

1

pi

The mathematical constant pi.

2

e

The mathematical constant e.

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